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St John, Steven J; Garcea, Mircea; Spector, Alan C

We previously have published data detailing the time course of taste bud regeneration in the anterior tongue following transection of the chorda tympani (CT) nerve in the rat . This study extends the prior work by determining the time course of taste bud regeneration in the vallate papilla, soft palate and nasoincisor ducts (NID) following transection of either the glossopharyngeal (GL) or greater superficial petrosal (GSP) nerve. Following GL transection in rats (n = 6 per time point), taste buds reappeared in the vallate papilla between 15 and 28 days after surgery, and returned to 80.3% of control levels (n = 12) of taste buds by 70 days postsurgery. The first appearance and the final percentage of the normal complement of regenerated vallate taste buds after GL transection resembled that seen previously in the anterior tongue after CT transection. However, in the latter case, regenerated taste buds reached asymptotic levels by 42 days after surgery, whereas within the time frame of the present study, a clear asymptotic return of vallate taste buds was not observed. In contrast to the posterior (and anterior) tongue, only 25% of the normal complement of palatal taste buds regenerated by 112 days and 224 days after GSP transection (n = 9). The difference in regenerative capacity might relate to the surgical approach used to transect the GSP. These experiments provide useful parametric data for investigators studying the functional consequences of gustatory nerve transection and regeneration .

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Kruspe, M; Thieme, H; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Irintchev, A


The rat femoral nerve is a valuable model allowing studies on specificity of motor axon regeneration . Despite common use of this model, the functional consequences of femoral nerve lesions and their relationship to precision of axonal regeneration have not been evaluated. Here we assessed gait recovery after femoral nerve injuries of varying severity in adult female Wistar rats using a video-based approach, single-frame motion analysis (SFMA). After nerve crush, recovery was complete at 4 weeks after injury (99% of maximum 100% as estimated by a recovery index). Functional restoration after nerve section/suture was much slower and incomplete (84%) even 20 weeks post-surgery. A 5-mm gap between the distal and proximal nerve stumps additionally delayed recovery and worsened the outcome (68% recovery). As assessed by retrograde labeling in the same rats at 20 weeks after injury, the anatomical outcome was also dependent on lesion severity. After nerve crush, 97% of the femoral motoneurons (MNs) had axons correctly projecting only into the distal quadriceps branch of the femoral nerve. The percentage of correctly projecting MNs was only 55% and 15% after nerve suture and gap repair, respectively. As indicated by regression analyses, better functional recovery was associated with higher numbers of correctly projecting MNs and, unexpectedly, lower numbers of MNs projecting to both muscle and skin. The data show that type of nerve injury and repair profoundly influence selectivity of motor reinnervation and, in parallel, functional outcome. The results also suggest that MNs' projection patterns may influence their contribution to muscle performance. In addition to the experiments described above, we performed repeated measurements and statistical analyses to validate the SFMA. The results revealed high accuracy and reproducibility of the SFMA measurements. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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